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Maybe You Missed Special Things About Vietnamese Food

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Vietnamese food is famous for its variety of ingredients and processing methods. With a rich and diverse cuisine, it’s no wonder that tourists visiting Vietnam can’t help but be surprised by the dishes here. Vietnamese cuisine is the name of the method of food preparation, the principle of mixing spices, and the general eating habits of the Vietnamese community and the ethnic groups belonging to Vietnam in the country of Vietnam.

vietnamese food

Although there are many differences, Vietnamese cuisine still contains the most general meaning to refer to all the dishes that are popular in the ethnic minority community but have been relatively popular in the Vietnamese community.

In Vietnamese culture, eating and drinking are art, it not only meets the basic requirements of people but also have a close relationship with the lifestyle and national traditions, which is very clearly shown through the tools used in the meal, how to behave with people while eating.

Therefore, eating and drinking also prove the history and formation of the culture of Vietnam. The dishes through each stage speak to the life and people of that period and of the land – where each dish was born.


Vietnam is an agriculturally-oriented country in the tropical monsoon climate. In addition, the territory of Vietnam is divided into three distinct regions: North, Central, and South. It is the characteristics of geography, culture, ethnicity, and climate that determine the specific characteristics of the cuisine of each region – region.

Each region has a unique taste and processing style. That contributes to the richness and diversity of Vietnamese cuisine. Vietnam’s wet-rice civilization made many dishes and cooking ingredients derived from rice (different from wheat or barley, cereals like other regions).

This is a food culture that uses a lot of vegetables (boiled, fried, pickled, eaten raw); many types of broth, especially sour soup, while the number of dishes with animal nutrition is usually less. The most commonly used meats are pork, beef, chicken, geese, ducks, shrimp, fish, crabs, snails, mussels, mussels, scallops,… Dishes are made from less common meats.

More commonly used meat such as pork, goat meat, buffalo meat, turtle meat, snake meat, tortoise meat, and rat meat… are often not the main source of meat, sometimes considered a specialty and only used on one occasion. something fun with wine to accompany.

The Vietnamese also have a number of vegetarian or other vegetarian dishes that are made from plants, with no animal food sources. However, in the community, there are few vegetarians, only monks in temples, or people who are seriously ill are forced to diet.

One feature more or less also distinguishes Vietnamese cuisine from some other countries: Vietnamese cuisine focuses on delicious food, although sometimes it does not set the top goal of eating nutritious food.

Therefore, in the Vietnamese culinary system, there are few dishes that are very sophisticated, stewed, and simmered like Chinese cuisine, nor are they inclined to highly aesthetic presentation like Japanese cuisine, but more about mixing. Subtly mix spices to make the dish delicious, or use chewy, crunchy ingredients that are enjoyable even if not really fatty (eg bamboo shoots, chicken wings, animal viscera. ..).

In fact, many people perceive, intuitively, that Vietnamese culinary characteristics are revealed in comparison with other culinary cultures in the world: Chinese food is nutritious, and Vietnamese food is eaten. Delicious, Japanese food looks pleasing to the eye. However, this feature is increasingly fading in the integration era.

According to historian Nguyen Nha, Vietnamese cuisine has 9 characteristics:

  • Sociability or diversity.
  • Low fat.
  • Rich flavor.
  • A combination of many substances, many flavors.
  • Tasty and healthy.
  • Use chopsticks.
  • Community or collective.
  • Hospitality.
  • Lay out on a plate

Principle of coordination

Vietnamese cuisine is characterized by the neutrality of ingredients that are not too spicy, too sweet, or too fatty. The auxiliary ingredients (seasonings) for processing Vietnamese dishes are extremely rich, including:

Many kinds of herbs such as basil, perilla, marjoram, onion, dill, Chinese smell…

Vegetable spices such as chili, pepper, lemongrass, chives, garlic, ginger, lemon, or young leaves…

Fermented spices such as batches, shrimp paste, vinegar, vinegar or bitter candy, coconut milk…

When enjoying dishes, the nature of mixing ingredients in a synthetic way above becomes even more obvious: Vietnamese people rarely eat any separate dishes and enjoy each dish, but a meal is often a combination. dishes from start to finish.

Another special feature of Vietnamese cuisine that other countries, especially Western countries do not have, is fish sauce seasoning. Fish sauce is used frequently in most Vietnamese dishes. There are also dipping sauces such as cork, and soy sauce (made from soybeans).

During the meal, the food is scooped out into bowls, bowls, and plates and presented in a round tray with a bowl of sauce placed in the center of the tray. Food and sauces are shared. A bowl of fish sauce shared on a tray of rice, not only makes the taste stronger, the dish has a more specific flavor but also shows the community and the standard in each meal of Vietnamese people. show community.

Because the bowl of sauce is placed in the middle of the tray, everyone must use it, so it becomes a measure of each person’s attention and cultural level.

Processing philosophy

Vietnamese cuisine follows two principles: yin and yang development and the five elements of mutual birth.

Yin and Yang development

The typical spices of the above-mentioned tropical Southeast Asian peoples are used in a harmonious way with each other, such as dishes that are easy to cause a cold stomach (welding) and must have hot and spicy spices (heat properties). accompanying and vice versa. Hot (warm) ingredients must be cooked with cold (cool) ingredients to create a balance for the dish.

Incompatible dishes that cannot be combined in one dish or eaten at the same time because they are not delicious, or potentially harmful to health, are also drawn from folk experiences passed down through generations. For example:

Duck meat is “cold”, suitable to eat in the summer with ginger fish sauce, “hot”. On the other hand, chicken and pork are considered “warm” and suitable for eating in winter (previously only pork and chicken were made during Tet).

Aquatic products ranging from “cool” to “cold” are suitable for use with ginger, lemongrass, and garlic (“warm”).

Spicy (“hot”) foods are often balanced with sourness, which is considered (“cool”).

Duck eggs (“cold”), must be combined with laksa leaves (“hot”).

Patients with flu and cold must drink ginger juice, steamed with lemongrass and grapefruit leaves (“hot”).

Prepared ingredients to mix fried spring rolls – a dish that almost perfectly combines the elements of yin and yang and the five elements

Characteristics by region, ethnicity

Although there are common features mentioned above, Vietnamese cuisine has differences between regions, although, in each of these regions, the cuisine of sub-regions also shows the following characteristics:

Northern cuisine

Northern cuisine is characterized as salty, rich, often not spicy, fatty, and sweet like other regions, mainly using diluted fish sauce and shrimp paste. Using a variety of vegetables and easy-to-find freshwater aquatic products such as shrimp, crab, fish, mussels, mussels … and in general, due to the ancient farming tradition, the northern cuisine has never been popular.

The main ingredients are meat and fish. Many people who appreciated Hanoi cuisine once said that this place represents the most typical quintessence of Northern cuisine with pho, vermicelli, vermicelli, gifts of nuggets, rolls from Thanh Tri … and assorted varieties. special spices such as Ca Cuong essential oil, and Lang basil.

Southern cuisine

Southern cuisine, which prefers sweet and sour foods, is heavily influenced by Chinese, Cambodian and Thai cuisine with the characteristic that it often adds sugar and often uses coconut milk (juice). coconut stretch). This culinary background also produces countless types of dried fish sauce (such as choke fish sauce, bo bo fish sauce, ba Khiet fish sauce…).

Southern cuisine also uses more brackish and salty seafood than the North (fish, shrimp, crab, sea snail) and is very special with rustic dishes, typical of an open world. , which has become a specialty many times: coconut water hamsters, steamed crows, cobras cooked with mung bean porridge, coconut worms, earthworms or date worms, voles, grilled snakehead fish…

Central Cuisine

Central cuisine is known for its pungent taste, its characteristic is reflected in its distinct taste, more spicy and salty dishes than northern and southern dishes, and colors are mixed in style. rich, vibrant, and prone to reds and dark browns. Central provinces such as Hue, Da Nang, and Binh Dinh are very famous for their sour shrimp paste.

In particular, Hue cuisine is influenced by the royal cuisine style, so it is very sophisticated in processing and presentation. On the other hand, because the locality does not have many products and royal cuisine requires a large number of dishes, each type of ingredient is processed in a variety of ways with many different dishes.

Ethnic cuisine

With 54 ethnic groups living in diverse geographical regions across the country, the cuisine of each ethnic group in the Vietnamese ethnic community has its own distinct identity. Many of them are less known in other ethnic groups, such as the dishes of raw pork mixed with young pho of the Central Highlands ethnic groups.

However, many dishes have become specialties in Vietnam and are well-known to many people, such as Southern beef sauce, egg roll cake (Cao Bang, Lang Son), banh coong phu (drip cake of the Tay ethnic group), originating from the Chinese boat cake), suckling pig and roasted duck with honey (face fruit), Lang Son humiliation stitch (influenced from Guangdong, China), sour noodle soup, bee pupa porridge, effervescent noodle soup, Thang Co, sticky rice dishes of the Muong, sour meat Thanh Son (Phu Tho)…

In the world

Following in the footsteps of Vietnamese people around the world, Vietnamese cuisine with all its unique features has gradually become known in other countries such as Thailand, Laos, China, and European countries with Vietnamese communities. reside.

Vietnamese restaurants can be easily found in the United States, Canada, France, Australia, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, and Russia. Pure Vietnamese dishes such as pho, fried spring rolls, bread, and special spices such as shrimp paste, and basil are very popular in areas with a large number of Asians, including Vietnamese people.

However, Vietnamese cuisine in countries around the world has been more or less hybrid with native cuisine or has been reduced or changed to better suit the taste of the population around the world.


Home meal

A meal of a modern Vietnamese family served on a round tray with a variety of ingredients: ribs, tofu, potatoes, tomatoes, gourds, spinach, and chili fish sauce.

Vietnamese people often eat snacks in the morning with snacks (such as cakes, sticky rice, porridge, pho, and vermicelli). The main meal, typical of a Vietnamese family, takes place at noon and in the evening, usually when the family has gathered. The main meal of Vietnamese people uses rice as the main food and from three to five dishes depending on the economic conditions of each family[6]:

A common rice cooker for the whole family (one bowl and pair of chopsticks each).

A small bowl of dipping sauce (fish sauce, fish sauce, or soy sauce, ..) or chili sauce, or tomato sauce.

A savory dish with animal protein and fat that is boiled, fried, or braised, such as meat, fish, chicken, beef, or ham.

A dish of boiled or sautéed vegetables, or herbs, raw vegetables, or pickles.

A soup can be rich and sophisticated, but it is rarely as simple as a bowl of vegetable broth.

Currently, due to the improvement of living standards, the structure of the main meal of Vietnamese people has also improved significantly in the direction of increasing nutritious salty dishes using animal ingredients. In addition to the tendency of some regions (especially rural areas) to have as many dishes on the tray as possible, many urban families focus on the trend of streamlining by cooking only one main dish with sufficient quality.

Protein and vegetables are displayed on a tray, served with other vegetables and melons. Some families make special dishes for their free Sunday, elaborate dishes that usually have little time to do. The bowl of “community” sauce is now gradually being distributed by many families, or sophisticated restaurants to separate bowls for each person to be more hygienic, and there are many different types of sauces depending on the type of food in the meal. what.


Dishes made into a tray

The table often uses many dishes, with special emphasis on savory dishes using animal ingredients, excluding all everyday dishes such as boiled vegetables, cucumbers…

Ancestor worship

Ancestor worship (December death anniversary, traditional New Year’s Day) often uses green bean sticky rice, Gac sticky rice with boiled whole chicken or pork leg. To worship the deceased only use white sticky rice and a boiled egg.

Tet Festival

Traditional Tet is very sophisticated, the basic tray is usually 5 bowls: balls, vermicelli, bamboo shoots, sprouts, birds or chickens, and 5 plates: spring rolls, spring rolls, boiled chicken or duck, mannequin, stir-fried. Today’s Tet tray has many changes in the menu in the direction of streamlining, focusing on “playing” rather than “eating”.


Chung cake

Glutinous rice dumpling

Sticky rice

Boiled chicken


Frozen meat

Banana Flower Salad

Mixed fried vegetables

Herbs, pickles of all kinds (onions, bean sprouts, vegetables, palanquin, etc.)

Silk rolls

Fried spring rolls

Braised pork leg with bamboo shoots, shiitake mushrooms

Chicken vermicelli soup

Ball soup


Banh tet

Pickled dish (palan or onion)

Sour meatball

Pork bologna

The meat soaked in fish sauce

Stewed pork leg soup

Shredded chicken salad

Potent chicken


Banh tet

Meat warehouse eggs

Stuffed bitter melon soup

Spring rolls

Cucumbers, salt palanquin

Shredded chicken

Cooked duck

Cold Meat, Sausage


Radish with fish sauce

Beef seven dishes

Wedding party

A rural tray in the engagement ceremony

The wedding guests often use food such as whole roasted suckling pig, boiled chicken placed on raspberries (usually sticky rice with gac), banh mi, rice cake, lotus jam, tea, wine, betel nut, and areca. Usually, the offerings are made in even numbers and placed on trays or caskets in odd numbers. Wedding parties have a menu similar to other parties, usually a menu of about 10 dishes with an appetizer (soup), a delicious rice dish, a sticky rice dish (usually sticky rice), and a soup dish. , one fish dish, two meat dishes, one stir-fried vegetable dish, one mannequin, and one dessert.


Mango shrimp salad

Deep-fried giant fish in Can Tho

The party has many types, but traditionally it is usually a type of banquet with many savory dishes, spring rolls, vegetables, mannequins, desserts, and wine or beer to accompany. Nowadays, the party can use a number of innovative forms such as a buffet with European dishes, and a basic party with dishes cooked according to the focus (such as pure fish, dog meat, beef, and goat meat).

Baba roasted salt

Grilled veal with soot

Roasted veal with salt

Beef seven dishes

Fish bubble cooked with melon

Cooking ball

Pineapple grilled basa fish

Steamed seabass with ginger and onions

Red snapper with soy sauce

Fried gourami

Snakehead fish steamed elected

Grilled snakehead fish

Fried crocodile with salt and pepper

Cha Ca La Vong

Rotating bird

Snake porridge

Say hello to shrimp cakes

Yangzhou fried rice

Hue royal rice

Fried crab with salt

Goat roll with fish fat

Goat with lemon

Stir-fried frog thighs with guise leaves

Steamed chicken with salt

Chicken cooked with abalone

Sea cucumber chicken

Pork sausage

Phu Quoc herring salad

Chicken salad

Lotus root salad with tiger shrimp

Roasted suckling pig

Fried eel with chili

Crispy fried noodles

Sugarcane grilled squid

Fried squid with salt and pepper

Stuffed with meat ink

Stir-fried porcupine roll

Grilled deer

NEM crab

Butter fried corn


Baked snails

Boiled blood cockle

Shark fin soup

Grilled veal tenderloin

Stir-Fried Rabbit Roll

Grilled Lobster with Garlic Butter

Shrimp fried with tamarind

Roasted salted shrimp

Deep-fried breaded shrimp

Plum machete meat

Snowball meatballs

Cracked crab eggs

Roast duck


Depending on the form of worship and the culture of the regions, many types of worshiping items are also more or less different such as New Year’s Eve offerings, Tet most (using vermicelli, Banh Chung, watermelon, five fruits, cold meat), full month offerings (using Gac sticky rice, grilled pork loaves), land offerings (sticky wine, rice, white rice, salt, boiled meat), offerings to souls (sugar cane, confectionery, fruit, white porridge), star offerings (Kinds of tea).


A plate of foreign-style meat rolls (on the front edge), spring rolls (top), shrimp cakes (rear right), Banh Cuon (white, rear near left), and a bowl of dipping sauce in the middle

The gifts are used for entertainment, not used to eat to fill up to replace a main meal. In Vietnamese cuisine, gifts are very rich, sold in many forms: peddlers, sold in popular shops, specialty shops, or easily processed at home. Common gifts include:

Types of cakes: Banh giay is made from rice flour, often eaten with spring rolls. Banh Gio consists of rice flour wrapped with pork, wood ear, and a little cartilage wrapped in banana leaves and steamed. Sticky rice cake, Gai cake, potato cake, Banh Cuon, many regions have their own specialties of Banh Cuon, famous for Thanh Tri Banh Cuon, Lang Son egg rolls. Drift cake, vegetarian cake; Banh Xue, also known as Banh Phu Thi and Banh Com; Banh Beo, Hue filter cake; pancakes, pancakes, etc.

Com: the most special is Vong village com (before the 1990s in the old Tu Liem district, later in Cau Giay district), Me Tri com.

Boiled snails: use saltwater snails such as woolen snails, prickly snails, incense snails, freshwater snails such as screws, jackfruit snails, and stuffed snails that are boiled medium, using an iron rod or toothpick to poke out fish sauce mixed with ginger, lemongrass, chili, garlic, and lime leaves sliced ​​only.

Boiled or grilled vegetables such as boiled cassava with sesame salt, boiled sweet potato, baked sweet potato, boiled corn, baked corn, and roasted corn.

Glutinous rice wine (also known as sticky rice wine or wine nuggets): made from white glutinous rice or glutinous rice with the seed membrane intact, soaked in water, cooked on a ceramic pot, cooled, then mixed with wine yeast. This dish has a strong sweet taste due to the starchy sugar in fermented rice, the aroma resembles the smell of alcohol and has a low alcohol content. In the North, sticky rice is often made on the occasion of the Doan Ngo New Year on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month because, according to folk beliefs, this dish can ward off evil spirits and bad luck.


A plate of boiled pork viscera to serve wine

Special use for drinking alcohol and beer is also known as “drinking bait”, “drinking food”, “aiming food”, and “targeting bait”. Vietnamese people are not too perfectionist when it comes to drinks and snacks, so in addition to the usual dishes or party dishes, there are usually only a few “specialized” dishes such as:

Grilled dried dishes: usually dried squid, dried sardines, dried deer, dried stingrays, dried yellowtail, often grilled over charcoal or alcohol, used as snacks in combination with beer and wine.

Sour dishes: toad fruit, green mango… minced mixed with chili, garlic, and/or dried fish. Often used as a snack, popular in the South of Vietnam.

Some other dry goods: roasted peanuts (roasted peanuts with basil), Banh Da (Sesame cake, Coconut cake) grilled, and Nha Trang fish cake.

Popular dishes

Main article: List of Vietnamese dishes


Rice dishes are cooked with long-grain plain rice with the right amount of water so that the rice does not dry out or crumble. This is not considered a type of food but is often considered a staple to eat-in meals. Depending on the region, there are many types of rice and variations in cooking methods.

White rice: usually cooked in a pot and served in a bowl for each person during the meal.

Rice balls: cooked rice, slightly pasty. Stuff it and squeeze it in a towel or hold it in large balls. When eating sliced ​​​​dipped with sesame salt, fried rice (also known as a cotton ball) pork, fried chicken, or eaten with all kinds of spring rolls. It’s different from the Japanese onigiri rice ball.

A plate of rice with beef

Broken rice is popular only in the South of Vietnam, in the North, this type of broken rice is not used. Broken rice is often served with grilled ribs with onion fat or omelet. Grilled ribs and a piece of skin served with rice cooked with broken rice. Rice and meat are mixed with a variety of vegetables, along with breaded shrimp, steamed eggs, and grilled shrimp. Usually, restaurants will serve this dish with a small bowl of dipping sauce, as well as a bowl of vegetable soup topped with a few slices of onion. Sometimes people replace steamed eggs with omelet eggs. (This way of serving is not common in restaurants and shops in Vietnam.)

Lam rice: upland sticky rice is put into bamboo tubes, pour more water, close tightly with banana leaves, and bake in the tube on fire until cooked. This dish is often popular among ethnic minorities such as the Muong and the Tay.

Chicken rice with herbs: rice is cooked in chicken body with some herbs, and has a special flavor. However, this dish is less popular.

Dusty rice: prevalent in urban areas, often serving office workers for lunch. The rice is put into the bowl of the ball speaker to create a mold, then pour it out on a plate, in one corner of the plate, put vegetables and meat.

Fried rice: fried cold rice in a greased pan, can be combined with a variety of vegetables (sauerkraut), tubers (kohlrabi, diced carrots), fruit (pineapple), meat (char siu, roast pork). ), spring rolls, spring rolls, eggs, and seafood. Fried rice has many variations but the most popular are mixed fried rice, Duong Chau fried rice, seafood fried rice, and beef melon fried rice. Some types of fried rice wrapped in lotus leaves have a very delicious taste.

Mussel rice: Hue specialty. Mixed rice with mussel meat, chili, and assorted herbs served with a bowl of boiled mussel juice.

Sticky rice

Sticky rice with chicken and fried onions

Sticky rice using the main ingredients is sticky rice soaked and water-bathed, cooked with hot steam in a kind of steamer (called “Cho” or “Shang”). Sticky rice is often mixed with other additives depending on the sticky rice dish.

The most common sticky rice dishes are steamed sticky rice (sticky rice with mung bean paste, finely pounded, loosening each grain), Xeo sticky rice (sticky rice, finely pounded green beans, thinly sliced, water fat, fried onions), green bean sticky rice, and bean sticky rice. peanuts (peanut sticky rice), black bean sticky rice, gac sticky rice (taken the red color of gac fruit, often mixed with a little sugar and fat), Cam leaf sticky rice (purple), Hoang Pho sticky rice (almost similar to Xoi Xeo but with added almonds) sticky rice), chicken sticky rice (sticky rice with shredded chicken), sausage sticky rice, durian sticky rice (using a bit of durian pulp mixed with rice), banh khuc (cake rolled over glutinous rice in a bowl), mixed sticky rice, pineapple leaf sticky rice (using pandan leaves pounding to get water to make sticky rice has a green color and a very light taste). Particularly, sticky rice with corn (sticky corn, in some places called sticky rice) is made from the main ingredient of corn, not from glutinous rice.


White porridge is eaten with toast

White porridge with salted duck eggs and pickles

Vietnamese porridge dishes have a similar processing method to China, Korea, and Japan: similar to cooking rice, but with a much higher proportion of water than rice so that the rice is crushed in the pot. Porridge often uses glutinous rice, sticky rice combined with plain rice, and many places also pound the rice before cooking. The broth for cooking porridge can be many types such as chicken broth, mussel broth, and meat broth. Porridge is usually eaten normally without any special food, but often Vietnamese people eat it with salted duck eggs, braised eggs, bean sprouts, fresh onions, grilled meat, shredded chicken or duck, and stir-fry. There are porridge dishes such as white porridge, vegetable porridge, eel porridge, ribs porridge, blood porridge, heart, and liver porridge (pork), chicken porridge, fish porridge, duck porridge, mussel porridge, frog porridge, ribs porridge, pork leg porridge. .. Especially, the ground cobra dish cooked with green bean porridge is very cool, nutritious, and famous in the South.

Yarn dish

Vietnamese cuisine originates from the wet rice civilization, so most of the noodle dishes are made from rice, in addition to wheat flour or beans. There are many types of fibers: noodles made from wheat flour, vermicelli, Banh Chung and rice noodle soup made from rice flour, the vermicelli made from galangal root powder or green beans, etc. Each type of noodle has influences and origins from many places. in water and each has its own distinctive flavor. Pho, vermicelli, vermicelli, and noodles usually have two main ways of making:

Dishes: Put ingredients in a bowl and fill with nutritious, delicious broth.

Stir-fry dishes: put in a frying pan with water or vegetable oil, combine with vegetables and meat

Noodle Soup

Some noodle dishes, vermicelli, vermicelli, pho

Pho using the main ingredient is white rice noodle soup, made from rice, is one of many Vietnamese dishes in the form of water noodles. Pho is often considered the “national spirit” of Vietnam, although it is almost impossible to find pho on the menu of the Vietnamese since before the French colonial period. This is a nutritious dish, very clear broth simmered with bones and spices (grilled ginger, roasted dried onion, cinnamon, anise, cardamom, etc.) with its own secret, stewed for hours.

Although there are innovative discoveries that create many variations of pho with different types of meat, those efforts have not been very successful except for beef pho and chicken noodle soup. Pho is usually arranged in a large bowl with meat on top with some regional herbs (like a few slices of onion, bean sprouts, shallots, and chopped coriander). Place the blanched noodle soup in a bowl, place the meat on top, pour in the hot broth, and sprinkle with some onions and cilantro.

Next to the bowl of pho for diners is a bowl containing a few pieces of fresh lemon, a few stalks of herbs, a little chili sauce, and pepper powder. In Vietnam, this is usually a breakfast dish, although now there is a tendency for diners, especially diners in domestic and foreign cities, to eat all days of the day. Pho has many brands, in the North of Vietnam very famous are the Pho Hanoi brands and Nam Dinh pho shops. However, in many regions of the country, and especially in countries around the world such as the US and Europe, pho has changed and decreased more or less to suit the culinary culture of each region. Many businessmen also started to create special pho brands such as Pho 24, and Pho Cali for export to foreign countries. The main pho dishes are often found:

Cooked Pho: use boiled meat.

Poached Pho: slices of meat are blanched first, then cooked with broth in a bowl (there are many types of re-poached, re-encrusted, etc.).

Rolled Pho: Put meat and spices in a hot flat pan, and stir quickly before pouring them into a bowl of pho.

Stir-fried Pho: Stir-fried rice noodles with soft or crispy noodles with vegetables and meat, pour out onto a plate.

Pho Cuon: Noodles are not Thai, leave large and roll assorted meats, and vegetables, dipped in sweet and sour fish sauce. Pho roll, as an innovation of traditional pho, is very popular in Hanoi.

Rice noodle

Vermicelli uses the main ingredient of vermicelli fibers that are squeezed into leaf vermicelli or left in the form of tangled vermicelli. Characteristically, the noodles are smoother than the noodles, and the toughness is like noodles. This type of fiber allows the cook to customize the broth for a variety of dishes, suitable for the taste of many diners and equally nutritious. The noodle dishes are very rich and diverse, including famous ones:

Vermicelli with shrimp paste: Noodles with fried beans, shrimp paste with lemon juice, and sparkling chili. The accompanying raw vegetables often have oregano.

Bun Bo Hue

Hue beef noodle soup: is a type of noodle soup with marinated beef flavor, originating from the ancient capital of Hue. The noodles used for this dish are thicker and larger, and also have a round cross-section. The broth is beef bone broth well stewed, and many other spices. Unlike pho, the bowl of Bun Bo Hue has a slightly red color. It is usually served with lettuce, bean sprouts, and a few slices of lemon to squeeze into the water. While both Hue beef noodle soup and pho are beef basics, their broths differ in flavor (and other accompaniments). Hue beef noodle soup is much hotter than pho. In addition to Hue beef vermicelli, it is also common to see Nam Bo vermicelli, a form of semi-dry, half-water vermicelli, with a variety of herbs and diluted fish sauce lining the bottom of the bowl, vermicelli on top, sprinkled with stir-fried beef and roasted peanuts on top. together, mix well, and serve hot.

Bun rieu: vermicelli with crab, fried tofu. The broth consists of simmered bone broth and crab broth cooked with tomatoes. Served with raw vegetables, bean sprouts, and salad with a bit more seasoning. There are two main types of vermicelli, Northern style crab vermicelli, which may contain only vermicelli, crab, and tomatoes, but sometimes water spinach and blanched vegetables can be added, and Nam Bo vermicelli is a type of crab vermicelli but usually made of ingredients, such as beef balls, crab balls, sliced ​​pork blood, and fried tofu.

Fish noodle soup: a type of noodle soup. Blanch vermicelli in a bowl, place slices of fried fish and fish balls on top, combine with vegetables such as jelly, nettle, vegetables, pour broth and serve hot. In different regions, fish vermicelli is further processed to create different types of fish vermicelli such as Hai Phong fish vermicelli, Quy Nhon fish vermicelli, and Kien Giang fish vermicelli, Chau Doc fish vermicelli, …

Bun snail: a type of noodle soup using snail broth and snail meat (stuffed snail, screw, stone snail). Put snail meat on top of a bowl of vermicelli, cover with broth and eat when very hot. The seasoning for snail vermicelli is often indispensable for spicy chili and shrimp paste.

Bun thang: a specialty in Hanoi once. Housewives Thai only pork rolls, and boiled eggs are very cleverly displayed on a bowl of vermicelli and hot broth. Bun thang is often seasoned with a bit of ca Cuong flavor.

Pancakes with pork rolls.

Vermicelli with mixed bamboo shoots: noodle soup with duck meat cooked with fresh bamboo shoots or sour bamboo shoots.

Bun Cha: Bun cha is a specialty of Hanoi, similar to the grilled meat vermicelli of the South. Hanoi vermicelli has two types of rolls: lean pork is minced, squeezed, pressed slightly flattened (minced pork chop), along with pork belly cut into small pieces and marinated (pork cha), then grilled. and drop in the dipping sauce with many slices of papaya and carrots mixed with sour. The taste of grilled meat is very delicious, eaten with vermicelli and raw vegetables. Bun Cha Hanoi in the past could not be without a little bit of Ca Cuong oil and Lang basil.

Vermicelli with grilled pork is popular in the South, using dried vermicelli, grilled pork, and many kinds of herbs at the same price. Can be served with fried spring rolls, and shrimp. Serve with a bowl of thick dipping sauce.

Vermicelli with dog meat: vermicelli served with dog meat with bamboo shoots or dog meat cooked with plum sap.

Vermicelli: Raw spring rolls (lean minced pork) balls with cooked shiitake mushrooms, boiled pork leg meat sliced ​​thinly. Arrange raw pork and pork leg meat on top, add some vegetables along the mosquito net (son ha) and pour hot and sweet broth into the bowl of vermicelli.

Noodle soup: famous for Tra Vinh noodle soup and Soc Trang noodle soup. In addition to the special broth, there are also pork blood, minced snakehead fish, roasted pork, and various bean sprouts, but indispensable raw bean sprouts, thinly sliced ​​bananas, and chives.


The main ingredient is noodles. The noodles are a combination of all three types of noodles, noodles, and pho, with the same appearance as the yarn and very tough, fragrant with flour. This yarn comes in two varieties: fresh and dried. The dry type must be boiled in boiling water to soften, the fresh type only needs to be blanched in boiling water. Noodle dishes also have two forms: chan broth or dry-fried. Hu Tieu is popular in the South of Vietnam and famous are Nam Vang noodle soup, My Tho noodle soup, Sa Dec noodle soup, and Saigon noodle soup. Hu Tieu is often served with raw bean sprouts and herbs.


Noodles are similar to other types of noodles, dry noodles. Noodles are usually soaked, and blanched to soften before being processed into dishes of the form:

Crispy fried noodles: fried egg noodles with burnt edges, on top of many kinds of seafood, vegetables and shrimp dishes and fragrant seasoning.

Soft fried noodles: blanched and stir-fried noodles, do not burn the edges like crispy fried noodles. Soft fried noodles are similar to fried pho.

Noodle soup: similar to pho, noodle soup of all kinds.

Crab rice paper (red rice paper): this is a type of noodle but the fibers are dark in color. Often processed as crab noodle soup, can be combined with rare beef, and young shrimp. Crab cake is a famous specialty of Hai Phong city.

Vermicelli, dumplings: water noodles imported from China with broth flavored with shrimp.

Quang Noodles

Snakehead fish noodles in Da Nang

Legend has it that after the sudden death of King Che Man, the first queen of Champa, Princess Huyen Tran, should have been burned at the pyre along with other concubines and beauties of the king of Champa according to the law. . But the king of Dai Viet at that time sent the royal fleet to bring her back to Dai Viet. After that, she became a monk but was not burned at the stake or disappeared at sea with the famous general Tran Khac Chung as announced. In Gioc Ba village, she had 32 acres of “golden fields”, she taught the villagers to weave, gave them back 28 acres, planted Chiem rice and made Mi Quang, from which Mi Quang was born.

In order to make a delicious, quality noodle leaf, it needs to go through many stages. The first is to wash the rice clean and then soak it in water for a certain time. After the rice is soft, it will be put into the mortar to grind a few times to produce flour. Then put the dough into the preheated noodle oven. Next, evenly coat 2 layers of dough on the mold. Continue, wait until the noodles are cooked, then take them out, if left for a long time, the noodles will stick to the lid of the pot. After finishing the coated noodles, take them out and call them leaf noodles. If you want to make Quang noodles, you need to thinly slice them with a knife or slicer into small pieces.

The broth is made from the kind of filling that we use. There are many types of ingredients that can be used to make Quang noodles: areas with lots of shrimp and crabs will make shrimp and crab noodles, in the rainy season will make frog noodles, or can be made from pork or beef, but the most traditional filling is still from chicken. Therefore, its taste will depend on the selected noodles. The broth that comes with the bowl of noodles is usually very concentrated, with little water. Usually, we will put compressed non-root oil and cashew color into this pot of broth to make it more attractive. To make the bowl of noodles more delicious, it is also indispensable to have 1 cup of chili garlic fish sauce sprinkled on the bowl of noodles when eating.

The vegetables used for Mi Quang are vegetables with a special flavor, including baby cabbage (ie cabbage that has just sprouted), basil, lettuce, and especially thinly sliced ​​banana flowers. In addition, there are indispensable ingredients such as scallions, green peppers, sesame rice paper, lemon, chili fish sauce made from anchovies (used to add more seasoning to each person’s taste), and roasted peanuts. pounded.

rice noodle

Stir-fried vermicelli with chicken intestines with vegetables

Vermicelli is usually made in the form of fibers with ingredients such as galangal tubers and flour. The way to prepare vermicelli to eat is similar to noodle dishes or pho. In Vietnamese cuisine, there are usually the following popular stir-fried vermicelli or water vermicelli: Stir-fried vermicelli with chicken heart; Stir-fried vermicelli with celery; Stir-fried vermicelli with wood ear, shiitake mushrooms, beef; Water eel vermicelli with fried fresh or dried eel sprinkled on a bowl of vermicelli, seasoned with laksa leaves, poured with broth and served hot (famous in Nghe An); Stir-fried vermicelli with mussels served with grilled rice paper; fried eel vermicelli; chicken vermicelli (water).

Hot pot

Hot pot can be considered as a variation of noodle soups or dishes that in the past were called by the name of Vietnamese mix (or mixed soup). However, with a variety of spices, vegetables, mushrooms, bamboo shoots, taro, meat, seafood, and specialized types of broth, hot pot is considered one of the dishes whose richness makes it difficult to list. full listing. There can be forms of fish sauce hot pot (using fish sauce disintegrated in the pot to cook broth, eaten with a variety of garden and wild vegetables), goat hot pot, seafood hot pot, mixed hot pot, chicken hot pot (usually accompanied by a variety of hot pot dishes). wormwood) etc. and there are many kinds of hot pot from China, and Thailand) imported to Vietnam.

A pot of juicy and hot stewed broth is placed in the small kitchen in the middle of the dining table, when eating, diners pick up vegetables, seafood, and meat to dip into the pot, and let it cook until it’s cooked or rare, and then take it out to eat. Hot pot often becomes a staple in a party with many participants.

Spring rolls, rolls

Spring rolls

Roll dishes usually use spring rolls or some kind of aromatic leaves (such as guava leaves, leaves of magnolia, etc.) to roll the ingredients inside. Can be grilled, fried, or eaten raw depending on the type.

Fried spring rolls – a dish with fillings made of pork, bean sprouts, crab, shrimp, wood ear, kohlrabi, eggs, and some other ingredients rolled in rice paper rolls or rice paper in the Southern language. Rice paper rolls are usually moistened before rolling by placing the cake leaves on a damp towel or wiping with vinegar. Nem is deep-fried until golden brown. Fried spring rolls represent quite comprehensively the essence of Vietnamese food because they have many varieties and are made from many ingredients. Crab spring rolls, spring rolls are quite popular types of spring rolls.

Goi Cuon is also a Vietnamese roll dish, rolled with rice paper rolls with shrimp, herbs, vermicelli, beef, green banana, sliced ​​pineapple, and other ingredients and dipped with dipping sauce or soy sauce. . According to Hanoi housewives, it is indispensable to dip a little sticky rice in a bowl of dipping sauce.

Spring rolls, spring rolls: Bi, pork ears mixed with hearing. Pick up a little bit of skin, pig ears, etc. In the middle of rice paper rolls with some vegetables such as fig leaves, clove leaves, plum leaves, etc., and rolled up, dipping sauce has a sweet and sour taste.

Nem Chua: Made in many provinces in Vietnam

Grilled beef with guise leaves served with rice cake

Bo Bia: Chinese in origin, consisting of steamed radish and carrots, sausages, chopped eggs, and sautéed dried shrimp all rolled in rice paper often dipped with concocted soy sauce.

Fish roll: Fresh fish rolled with fresh onions and many other plants such as fig leaves, clove leaves, green bananas, figs, fennel, pineapple, and vermicelli rolls with rice noodle rolls. Sometimes diners can eat raw sliced ​​fresh fish or small fish that are still swimming in pots and are called fish salads.

Beef roll with guise leaves: not completely spring rolls, but filled with ground beef with a little garlic, marinated and wrapped in guise leaves, fried or grilled. Other variations of it are fried dishes such as river bone rolls, and pork rolls with pork.

Nem Lui or grilled spring rolls: A special meat roll dish of Central Vietnamese cuisine, with a distinctive red color and flavor. Nem Lui is grilled on skewers, when eaten, it is usually rolled with rice paper, raw vegetables, star fruit, acrid banana, dipped in a typical dipping sauce cooked with glutinous rice and pureed pork. There are many special types of grilled skewers such as cane skewers.

Salad (salad)

A mixed salad

The mannequin dishes are usually mixed with the main ingredients of a vegetable, tuber, fruit combined with herbs, mixed with fish sauce, salt, vinegar, sugar, garlic, chili and sprinkled with crushed roasted peanuts:

Papaya salad: sliced ​​papaya, shrimp, pork, herbs dipped in a dipping sauce mixed with vinegar.

Hue water spinach salad: a type of salad originating from Hue, with water spinach filling.

Shredded chicken salad: shredded chicken mixed with laksa leaves, onions, fish sauce, lemon, sugar, pepper…

Dried beef salad: a particularly popular gift in Hanoi, made from papaya, dried beef, herbs, fish sauce, vinegar, sugar, garlic, and chili.

Nem chao, spring rolls: pork skin or pork ears, diced fat mixed with hearing, eaten with fig leaves (or fruits), clove leaves, etc.

Banana flower salad: thinly sliced ​​banana flowers, soak a little vinegar and salt until white before making mannequin.

Dried jellyfish salad: After defrosting, blanch in boiling water for about 1 minute, then take it out. Powdered roasted rice, herbs of all kinds, lemon, sugar, salt, chili seasoning to taste. Mix it all together. Serve with fig leaves. You can mix chili garlic sauce depending on the taste of each person. Mainly fiber, so it is very suitable for people with obesity.

Meat dishes

Warehouse, roast

Braised fish

Braised meat and fish: The braised dish is the use of some common fish meat, marinated with spices, roasted or lightly fried, then poured with water and boiled for about 1 hour to dry up. This is a rustic dish in Vietnamese families. Braised pork (usually fatty meat or half lean half fat) braised with fish sauce, pepper, onions. You can braise the meat with chopped coconut, or mix it with eggs and braised beans to make Chinese stew. Fish is often braised with galangal, fillings. If it is a sea fish, people often add a little tea to solidify the fish meat, and if it is a freshwater fish, or stock it with water (made with sugar) to get a dark brown color.

Roasted dishes (not roasting methods like nuts: roasted peanuts, roasted sesame) are usually chicken, shrimp, crab, etc. is mixed with fish sauce, salt is relatively salty, dry.

spring rolls

Is the form of meat (pork, beef) that is still hot, pounded, mixed with spices, wrapped in balls and boiled. However, there are many variations of spring rolls, famous for having spring rolls (spring rolls) made from lean pork and fish sauce; beef trotters made from beef, pepper, dill; Thu pork is made from Thu meat and wood ear, pepper (this dish is usually fried and then pressed tightly); flower springs using meat and eggs; Raw pork rolls are pounded pork but not steamed or boiled, but used to shape balls into soups and vermicelli.


Use all kinds of meat (be it pork, fish, shrimp, fresh squid) minced or pounded, mixed with spices and grilled or steamed. There are special types of rolls: cinnamon rolls, com nuggets (mixed with raw spring rolls, steamed), squid rolls, fish cakes (finely fried fish, dill and pressed flat, grilled or steamed), beef rolls, spring rolls kumquat (small ball like a kumquat, spread the egg yolk out and steam it, then bake). Some variations of beef rolls with guise leaves are also called grilled dishes such as river bone rolls, pork rolls. Cha is relatively difficult to process at the seasoning stage, because if it lacks spices and lacks the necessary plasticity, it will turn into a “sausage”.


Whole roast pork

Roast pork: whole pork grilled with charcoal or cut into pieces, tattooed holes on the surface of the skin and fried in a pan. In the North, roast suckling pig is a commonly used betrothal item in engagements.

Roast duck meat: Duck cooked whole roast in a pan of boiling fat. Famous is the Cantonese roasted duck or Lang Son roasted duck stuffed with honey leaves.


Blood pudding is a fresh dish made from pig blood, duck blood, swan blood (sometimes including dog blood, bird blood, and crab blood) that has been braked to prevent freezing, combined with cartilage, minced meat to freeze the product. Products. Served with shelled roasted peanuts, pepper, chili, herbs and even, it can be eaten with boiled pork intestines. There are two variations of blood: either completely raw, or slightly blanched. Blood soup is often recommended by health facilities because it can transmit many diseases and parasites such as cholera, worms, flukes, rabies, …

Use additives to cook

Garlic and chili spring rolls

Ingredients that can cook animal meat can include: hearing, pho (milk in the small intestine of pigs), lemon juice. The common dishes are spring rolls: ground or pounded meat mixed with skin (sliced ​​pork skin) and black pepper or sliced ​​chili, wrapped with banana leaves, guava leaves or intestine leaves for a few days to naturally ferment. course. Spring rolls use pork head or ears, mixed with hearing, sliced ​​galangal root and sesame seeds, wrapped in banana leaves or guava also for natural sour fermentation. Sour meat using badger sliced ​​thinly, mixed with hearing, put in jars or bamboo tubes. These dishes are usually served with garlic.

Special meats

Shredded chicken with lemon leaves

Beef: is made in many forms, including the famous rattle beef (beef cut into small squares, marinated and stir-fried, served with onions, raw vegetables and tomatoes. Served with rice. is a French-influenced dish); beef seven dishes; beef with wine sauce (beef marinated in stewed spices, usually very spicy and hot, served hot with bread). Young beef (veal) dishes are very delicious, tender and sweet, often steamed or stir-fried.

Chicken: shredded chicken, lemongrass chicken (you can use pork, beef or other types of meat mixed with lemongrass), chicken, roast chicken, boneless chicken, etc.

Duck meat: orange cooked duck, vinegared duck, braised duck with crocodile, roasted duck, potential duck.

Goat meat: can make 5, 7 dishes. Famous for Ninh Binh mountain goat meat dishes in Ninh Binh tourist areas.

Dog meat: usually 5, 7 or 8 dishes, seven dishes are popular. Famous are Nhat Tan dog meat (Hanoi), Van Dinh dog meat (old Ha Tay), Viet Tri dog meat. Popular dishes include dog cake, dog sausage, dog shuffle, plum sap, steamed dog meat, stewed dog’s feet.

Meat of snakes, bats, rabbits, civets, eels, turtles, tortoise, etc. Less common, often made into special dishes.

Salt dishes

Green bean sticky rice served with sesame salt

Salted dry foods are often used for long-term family meals such as:

Sautéed meat and fish: Roasted meat (fish) with salty fish sauce, pounded, fresh and dried.

Dried salted fish, salted squid: fish (usually using fish, sardines, herring…) or salted and dried squid, when eaten, can be stocked with spices or grilled.

Peanut salt, sesame salt (sesame), lemongrass salt: Roast peanuts, sesame seeds, soybeans or stir-fry lemongrass separately or a mixture of the above ingredients, dry with salt, then finely pound together.

The above-mentioned dishes of peanut salt, sesame salt, shrimp paste, lemongrass are often used in the family rice tray as one of the dishes. However, nowadays, these dishes are almost only seen as a condiment, an additive to other dishes. Ruoc can be eaten with porridge, sticky rice, bread. Peanut salt, sesame salt to dip boiled vegetables such as boiled chayote, boiled fresh bamboo shoots, or served with rice balls.

Vegetable dishes

Sauteed garlic spinach

Vegetables and soups are very popular in Vietnamese cuisine. Many types of vegetables, tubers and fruits are used to make boiled, stir-fried, raw foods and soups such as water spinach, amaranth, spinach, taro, taro, green papaya. In addition, types of cotton such as pumpkin cotton, loofah, water lily, Dien Dien, Thien Ly, So Chopsticks … or leaves such as clove leaves, mango leaves, young guava can also be used in dishes. Southern.


Raw vegetables: herbs of all kinds (thyme, coriander, dog basil, perilla, marjoram, along with onions, etc.), lettuce, fig leaves, clove leaves, coriander leaves, young collard greens, pennywort , fenugreek, dandelion, tomato, etc.

Vegetable salad: vegetables mixed with vinegar, sugar, garlic, chili and crushed roasted peanuts.

Vegetable salad: vegetables mixed with cooking oil and vinegar, for example Russian Salad

Blanched vegetables: blanched bean sprouts, blanched onions, blanched chrysanthemums, blanched vegetables, etc.

Boiled vegetables: Boiled water spinach, boiled spinach, boiled radish, boiled cabbage, etc.

Stir-fried vegetables: stir-fried morning glory, stir-fried jelly, fried kohlrabi, etc. often combined with stir-fry with animal meats.

Grilled vegetables: quite popular in the South, grilled okra, grilled morning glory, etc.

Fried vegetables: breaded eggplant, breaded straw mushrooms, french fries.

Cooking vegetables: can use vegetables, tubers, fruits to cook into soups, soups, or cook with hot pot.


Pickled sauerkraut

Pickled dishes are very popular in Vietnamese cuisine with many forms. The popularity and variety of Vietnamese pickles can be proudly matched by Korean kimchi dishes.[citation needed]

Vegetables and fruits are pickled in two ways: pickled for immediate consumption or pickled for long-term use. Lots of vegetables (vegetables, sage (mint), dandelion, lotus root, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, etc.), root vegetables (lotus root, white radish, kohlrabi, etc.), onions, tubers) and fruits (eggplant, eggplant, eggplant, figs) are used to make pickles. And in the Central region, there is also a famous dish of pickles, salted from citrus and green jackfruit fibers.


Bowl of stewed pork and bamboo shoot soup in the food table

Vietnamese cuisine uses many types of soup. From casual family meals to parties, soup is always one of the indispensable basic dishes. The basic types of soup usually have:

Boiling water: boiled water spinach with lemon juice, boiled cabbage juice for ginger, boiled gravy with chopped onions, chicken broth, etc.

Sour soup: very popular in Vietnamese cuisine, perhaps because the country is in a hot country, it is suitable for sour and cool soups. Soup has sour taste due to crocodile, tamarind leaves, grilled vertical fruit, tamarind fruit, sour ear, sour star fruit, suddenly wine, vinegar, batch, usually cooked with the main ingredients are shrimp, meat, fish, bones, mussels, mussels. Each type of sour ingredient is used to mix with different soups. For example, fish soup is cooked with wine instead of sour star fruit, tamarind is cooked in mussel soup, sour ears or lemon juice for water spinach, etc.

All kinds of soups with vegetables and fruits cooked simply: amaranth soup, sweet potato soup, cassava soup, vegetable soup, kohlrabi soup, etc.

Vegetable soups cooked with some other ingredients: spinach cooked with lean meat, ribs cooked with pumpkin, squash soup with shrimp, melon cooked with crushed peanuts, spinach cooked with crab soup, mixed ball soup. cook zucchini, cauliflower, ham, shrimp, etc.

Types of soup: Mussel soup, mussel soup, co-axial soup, crab soup, etc.

Types of thick soup: usually using bones, simmered animal meat, stewed with a tuber, fruit such as potato, taro, taro, green papaya (Pork rib soup, Green papaya stewed with pig’s bone, Pork leg cooked with green beans, Pork bones cooked with bamboo shoots, Ca bung soup, chicken juice, etc.) or melons (Red catfish cooked with melon, beef stewed with melon, etc.), Snails soup cooked with bananas and beans, Frog soup cooked with imitation ba ba, taro crab soup with vegetables.

Cake, jam, candy

Saltine crackers

Pillow cake

Dumplings: steam-cooked cakes, onions, mushrooms, vegetables, eggs, vermicelli, and meat can be added to the filling. Dumplings are only of Chinese origin (包子 baozi), which have been changed to suit Vietnamese taste. The filling of the dumpling usually consists of minced marinated meat “char siu” (according to Chinese cooking style), small pieces of hard-boiled egg, vermicelli, and sausage. Some regions make seafood-filled dumplings and even vegetarian dumplings, a popular dish in Buddhist temples.

Banh Beo: a dish in the central region consisting of many pieces of the cake made from rice flour, placed on small round plates, topped with small shrimp and other things, and eaten with dipping sauce.

Fried dough cake, or cake dip: a dish that originated in China and has many variations in Asia. Vietnamese style served with dark soy sauce.

Filter cake: a cake originating from Hue made from filtered tapioca flour, shrimp, and meat, served with dipping sauce.

Banh Chung: a type of cake made of glutinous rice wrapped with dong leaves, chit leaves, or banana leaves, filled with pork fat, green beans, and pepper, traditionally used during the Lunar New Year. The typical southern style of Banh Chung has many other ingredients and is called Banh tet; However, this name is generally used to refer to Banh Chung.

Banh Cuon: rice flour and water spread evenly into a thin layer, steamed by steam, can add pork with onions. There are many types of banh cuon depending on the filling and the ingredients served with the cake such as spring rolls, cinnamon rolls, eggs, and shredded shrimp. The most famous roll cake without filling is Thanh Tri roll cake.

Casters: There are two types: hot cakes and cold cakes. Cold molded cakes are often round and peanut-shaped and can be eaten with crab noodles or dipped with shrimp paste with lemon juice, in the North often dotted with soy sauce. Hot cakes are usually scooped into a bowl that already has fried minced meat with wood ears and onions.

Question cake: a type of very thin flat noodles that are tangled. Usually sprinkled with some fresh onions and a plate of meat as a side dish.

Banh mi banh mi: is a typical Vietnamese sandwich. It is usually French bread with paté (pâté), various Vietnamese cold cuts (variety), sausages, ham, carrots, or fruit to make pickles, and slices of cucumber. Often added a little coriander, chili sauce, and pepper (depending on preference). This dish is available everywhere in Vietnam and is preferred by the common people to replace every meal of the day, but most commonly it is breakfast and lunch. The most common types of bread:

Banh mi shumai (bread with large meatballs, marinated in spices), or char siu bread

Egg bread: omelet rolled inside. In addition, the more common style used for breakfast in Vietnam is an omelet with fried onions, fried bacon, with a little more chili sauce or magi, served with small bread.

Steak omelet: crack a few eggs on a boiling fat pan with steaks, sprinkle with some french fries and serve with bread.

Bread with wine sauce: Bread is served with beef in wine sauce, seasoning is a little coriander and pepper.

Banh xeo: a type of cake made with rice flour, coconut milk, fresh onions and turmeric powder to have a yellow color. It is filled with pork, shrimp and bean sprouts (or similar ingredients), fried in a pan. When eating it is wrapped in salad or vegetables and depending on taste can add other herbs, eat with dipping sauce. It is one of the few French-influenced dishes. Banh xeo was voted as one of the 10 most delicious and nutritious cakes in the world due to its very balanced composition of starch, protein and vegetables. When eating, people often use their hands to wrap cakes into vegetables.

Banh Khoai: Similar to banh xeo but smaller and thicker, it is a typical dish of Hue.

Banh Khuc (or sticky rice) is usually filled with green beans and pork belly; The outer layer of powder coat is dyed green, made from glutinous rice flour processed using color from vegetables. This cake is typical from the North.

Banh Khot: made from diluted yellow powder from turmeric powder, the meat filling can have green beans added. Banh mi is eaten with vegetables and dipping sauce (fish sauce) similar to banh xeo.

Banh Can: like banh khot, without filling or can add a little egg or beef, molded without grease, is a dish originating from the Cham people.

Spring rolls: Made from a variety of flours, the filling can include meat, mushrooms, and shrimp. Banh gio is characterized by an opaque white dough.

Bean cake: the main ingredient is mung beans and the dough is baked in small molds sometimes with shrimp toppings; usually cut into pieces to eat with rolls and vegetables, dipping sauce.

Pillow cake: donut shaped like a pillow, shell made of flour, filled with vermicelli, wood ear, minced pork, sausage, egg.

Banh Nam or Banh La: Made from rice flour and shrimp, very soft, healthy, easy to eat. This is a typical dish of Hue.


Grilled beef cake

Flexible cake: originated from China, made from glutinous rice flour with sugar, vegetarian filling (green beans, lotus seeds, taro, red beans, green tea …) or salty filling (salted eggs, sausages, mixes) ), often seen during the Mid-Autumn Festival.

Drift cake: made from glutinous rice flour, wrapped in boiled sugar.

Baked cakes, commonly seen during the Mid-Autumn Festival, have a filling similar to sticky rice cakes.

Green bean cake: the main ingredient is green beans, which are treated with shells mixed with sugar, and additives and steamed or cooked and then pressed.

Gai cake: black due to the use of ash leaves to soak rice before grinding rice to make cakes. The filling uses lotus seeds, pumpkin jam, and coconut. The famous gai cake has heirloom shops in Hai Duong, Nam Dinh.

Little cake: like gai cake, but has a small round shape like floating cake.

Beefcake (black beefcake, white beefcake)

Cakes, also known as cakes, use flour and baking powder, influenced by France.

Banh mi cake: similar to sponge cake but poured in a small flower-shaped mold.

Revival cakes, printed cakes: made from tapioca or glutinous flour that are roasted for aroma and compacted in a mold.

Com cake: made from green nuggets.

Khao cake

Sweet ram cake, a type of donut with instant sweetness, sprinkled with sesame, cake with or without filling, ram cake without filling in the form of a round cake-like cake, also known as a rope ball and is compared to a Donuts cake. Vietnamese style (Vietnamese donut)

French cake

Colorful jams are sold

Oh, dream of salt

Croissant (croissant)

Chocolate and raisin cake

Paté chaud (pronounced paté so): toasted flour crust, pork filling


Jams are often special gifts during the traditional Lunar New Year. Many kinds of fruit can make jam. As a general rule, they are all dried with less water and seasoned, marinated, or soaked in a concentrated hot sugar solution. Common types of jam are Ginger jam, peanut jam, coconut jam, pumpkin jam, lotus jam, date jam, tamarind jam, tomato jam, tapioca jam, gourd jam, and custard-apple jam. In addition, some types of dried fruit can also be classified into the family of jams, such as dried jackfruit, and dried banana.

O mai

Main article: O mai

These are juiced fruits made similar to jam, but often stir-fried, marinated not only with sugar but also with ginger, licorice, and salt. O mai often used apricots and fruits of the same family as plums and peaches. Later there were many variations of the dish, including those imported from China and some other Asian countries. The main types of apricot trees today can be named: o mai me, o mai croc, o mai apricot, o mai date, o mai pineapple, o mai apple meo, o mai cherry, etc. Hang Duong Street in Hanoi is famous for hundreds of types of apricot umbrellas, which are used by many buyers during the holidays or given as gifts.


Many kinds of candy are handmade by people and are now being mass-produced at confectionery factories. Candy often uses a lot of sugar, and malt with a certain type of fruit or nut such as peanut candy, candied sausage, sesame candy, sesame candy, durian candy, coconut candy, cute candy, almond candy, etc. Many kinds of handmade candies have become specialties of different regions of the country such as cu de candy, durian candy, coconut candy, sesame candy, etc.


Some bottled Vietnamese wines

Traditional Vietnamese drinks are very diverse, including wines, teas using tea leaves, cool leaf juices, sweet teas using beans, jelly, sugar water, tapioca, etc.

Local wines

Distilled wine

Distilled wine, also known as base wine, hoe wine made from fermented cereals are very popular throughout the country. Wherever Vietnamese people live, there are wines made from paddy, plain rice, glutinous rice, cassava, jackfruit seeds, corn, etc. Any locality can have good winemakers, however, many famous types of distilled wine are known to other localities and even foreign countries, such as Van Village Wine (in Bac Ninh, also known as “Van Huong My”. wine”), Kim Son wine in Ninh Binh, Bau Da wine (Binh Dinh), Mau Son wine (Lang Son), San Lung wine, Thanh Kim wine made from sticky rice sprouts (Lao Cai), Bac Ha corn wine, Liquor Xuan Dai, Xuan Thach Wine (Tra Vinh), Hong Dao Wine (Quang Nam), Go Den Wine (Long An),…

Pickled wine

Some types of medicinal alcohol-soaked animals and plants

Distilled wine, also known as medicinal wine, uses herbs or animals to be soaked in distilled white wine with high alcohol content. Distilled wines are very popular and diverse, usually, every family can have a few bottles of soaked wine to drink and sip at meals as medicines, with the concept that alcohol is used to effectively lead medicine. . Soaked wine includes the following forms:

Wine soaked from animals: including hundreds of types, but the most popular ones are snake wine (usually soaked in an odd number of one, three, or five, seven snakes of all kinds), bum wine (usually soaked in two or two snakes).

Male and female), chameleon wine, earth bee wine, velvet wine (soaked deer velvet), bear bile wine, jade wine (soaked goat testicles), deep chit wine, walrus wine (seahorse), bear hand wine, etc., and wines soaked with broth made from bones and animals such as tiger wine, monkey wine, python wine, whole bone wine, sperm wine (elephant testicles), seal wine, etc.

Wine soaked in traditional Chinese medicine or plants: ginseng wine, jujube wine, lychee wine, goji berry wine, three-kid wine, dangling wine, ha thu wu wine, lingzhi wine, etc.

Liquor uses juice extracted from fruits: usually soak fruits such as apricots, plums, apples, apples, and pineapples with sugar, then extract the water and mix it with alcohol.

In addition, it is very popular to mix mixed kinds of animals and plants, collectively known as “ethnic wines”.

Undistilled wine

Popular types of tonic wine from female sticky rice (with white opaque glutinous rice wine and dark purple sticky rice wine), Can wine (famous for Hoa Binh can wine and Tay Nguyen can wine).

The Vietnamese also have some types of wine made from water extracted from other trees and fruits to ferment into alcohol such as wine extracted from trees and flowers of the forest tree (Quang Ngai), also called by ethnic minorities. tree tie (wine tie) or tree lap; date wine naturally ferments water secreted from the date palm tree; Dong Nai grapefruit wine uses fermented grapefruit juice; sugarcane alcohol for sugarcane juice fermentation; watermelon wine put yeast into the melon to make wine, etc.


Wines (made from grapes) are less popular in the Vietnamese community, commonly known as Thang Long wine and Dalat wine.


Bia Hoi or bottled beer has not been popular in Vietnamese cuisine for a long time, perhaps from the French colonial period until now, and was immediately captivated by the Vietnamese. Currently, there is a famous beers in the country such as Hanoi beer, Saigon beer, and many foreign beer brands. The culture of drinking beer on a hot summer afternoon is very popular among the Vietnamese community in urban areas, especially in northern cities.

Bitter teas (teas)

Tea is a popular drink in Vietnamese cuisine as well as in most other Asian countries. Although the Vietnamese way of drinking tea has not been raised to a ritual like the art of enjoying Chinese tea or to religion in the art of living like the Japanese tea ceremony, Vietnamese people still use tea in a popular way with dozens of people.

Forms: using dried star tea buds (types of iced tea, hot tea poured into cups), using tea leaves or old leaves to make green tea, tea seeds, and flowers are also used to cool drinking water. Vietnam has many famous teas originating from the North such as Thai tea (Thai Nguyen), Suoi Giang tea (Nghia Lo), San Tuyet tea, and Lam Thao tea (Phu Tho).

Not only are they used pure, but many kinds of tea are also marinated with fragrant flowers such as lotus-marinated tea (using lotus rice grains), jasmine-marinated tea, jasmine tea, wolf-flower-marinated tea, mallow flower, etc.

Currently, there are many types of tea imported from abroad that are also gradually popular in Vietnamese cuisines such as oolong tea, Taiwanese pearl milk tea, Chinese teas, and Japanese tea. A few Vietnamese people also use powdered tea in small filter bags, but most Vietnamese prefer to drink tea with a set of special teapots used to make brewed tea.

The coffee

Filtered coffee and iced cups

Vietnam is a coffee exporter, so many types of coffee are used more and more popularly in Vietnamese cuisine in all regions, especially in urban areas. Coffee is usually brewed and extracted using a coffee filter. According to thermal properties, there can be two popular ways of drinking, namely hot coffee and iced coffee.

In terms of ingredients, pure coffee is called black coffee, and coffee with milk. Coffee extract is also often used to make some smoothies or yogurts for a special flavor. Nowadays, instant coffee is also popular coffee. With increasing demand, coffee is transformed into many different drinks and the decoration is very eye-catching.

The combination of coffee and condensed milk in a large amount will create a cup of silver, or for normal milk will be a cup of Cappuccino.

Leafy, tuber, fruit juices

Cool plants are used to cook drinking water such as leaves, buds, seeds; crow’s beak leaf juice, ground human water, bitter tea, ginseng root juice, ginseng root, string tea, Centella Asiatica juice, dried bitter melon for drinking water, water for cooking artichoke flowers and leaves (cotton tea), white tea, powder kudzu, black jelly (made from jelly leaves), white jelly (jelly), etc.

Sweet teas

Black jelly

Tea is a sweet, sugary food that can be eaten cold or hot. The characteristics of tea range from the type that uses a lot of water and sugar (such as pearl tea, tea jelly, and black bean tea), can also be semi-thin and semi-solid like porridge (such as pomelo tea, taro tea) or thick (tea) granny, green bean tea).

Tea is often eaten as a dessert or eaten as a snack. In Vietnam, tea dishes are processed quite simply but delicately: the main ingredients are usually cereals (beans, beans of all kinds, glutinous rice, tapioca flour, tapioca flour, tapioca flour, tapioca flour); other ingredients such as black jelly, white jelly, coconut milk, pearls; white sugar, red sugar, molasses; flavors such as ginger, grapefruit essential oil, banana oil, vanilla… are cooked together until soft.

The most common types of tea include mung bean tea (cooked with solid green beans), ba cot tea (cooked with glutinous rice, ginger, red sugar or molasses) that can be eaten with sticky rice to form a sticky rice dish.

However, in reality, there are many types of tea, each using a different type of ingredient. There are many kinds of tea such as cone tea (or ba cot tea), green bean tea, black bean tea, corn flakes tea, red bean tea, white bean tea, pomelo tea, and mixed tea, longan lotus seed tea, etc.

A dish of tea originating from China but also known by many Vietnamese people is black sesame tea or sesame paste (pronounced Chinese style) made from black sesame seeds and ginseng (the word Confucianism should be read as ” tonic bar”). Hue and Hanoi tea dishes are famous for their richness, variety of varieties, and high quality.

Fruit juice

Blended avocado smoothie with milk

In the drinks of fruit origin, Vietnamese people have used a lot of fruits soaked with sugar (in the form of syrup) or salt, extracted water mixed with sugar to drink such as passion fruit juice, crocodile juice (sugar pickled crocodile, and salted crocodile). ginger), pineapple juice, jackfruit juice, salted lemon (peeled lemon, squeezed out of the water, soaked in salt to use gradually), salted apricots (powdered apricots with the ratio of one kilogram of apricots to one ounce of salt), sugar apricots (apricots) soaked in the ratio of one kilogram of apricots to one kilogram of sugar, soaked for 2 years or more can be used as cough medicine).

Drinks using pure or mixed pureed fruit, or fruit juice imported from foreign countries, were not used in the past. Currently, this method of fruit processing is gradually becoming popular in the Vietnamese community with dishes such as an avocado smoothie, custard apple smoothie (cucumber custard apple), strawberry smoothie, mango smoothie, papaya smoothie, etc. watermelon smoothie, tomato juice, carrot juice.


Milk has many types, if divided by origin, there will be natural milk and artificial milk. Or according to the user, milk for pregnant women, milk for children, milk for adolescents, and milk for the elderly.

Other drinks

Some other types of drinks are also quite popular such as a bowl of Bao measure soap (cooked with herbs such as bamboo leaves, sugar cane, and jujube, with a sweet taste);

Tao Pho imported from China, made from white bean brains, is greasy and cool because it is mixed with light sugar water; bean water (ground soybeans mixed with water, filtered and boiled to cool); yogurt; carbonated soft drinks imported from abroad and bottled mineral water such as Kim Boi mineral water.



Banana corn

Green zucchini, pumpkin, gourd

Eggplant (eggplant, discus, eggplant, eggplant…)

Cabbage (genus Brassica)


Watercress (genus Nasturtium)



Radish: red, white radish (genus Raphanus)


Legumes (scientific name Pachyrhizus erosus)

Cassava root



Sweet potato (genus Dioscorea)

Potatoes (genus Solanum)

Bamboo shoots, bamboo shoots: including fresh bamboo shoots, dried bamboo shoots and salted bamboo shoots with vinegar and chili.


Pumpkin top

Vegetables (Chrysanthemum, collard greens, collard greens, bitter cabbage,…- genus Brassica)


Vegetables need me


Jute vegetables

Sweet potato (sweet potato leaves)


Malabar nightshade

Water spinach (scientific name Ipomoea aquatic)

Vegetable shrinkage


Kohlrabi (scientific name Brassica oleracea)

Su su (scientific name Sechium edule)

Broccoli (Cauliflower) – derived from the French chou-fleur, genus Brassica

Salads of all kinds



Spices often have special aromatic oils, used raw or added to dishes.


Dumpling fish (or lettuce)

Onions: dried onions, scallions, onions


Basil, basil


Apricot leaves

The smell of ships (or Coriander – m.Nam)




Coriander (or Coriander – m.Nam)

Laksa leaves



Dill (or Dill)

Other vegetable seasonings


Anise (small anise, great anise)








Sour tamarind

Sesame or sesame (white and black)

Green tea

Leaves and lemons

Leaves way


Dry onion

Spices of inorganic or organic origin



MSG (or main noodles)

Cooking oils (for mixing vegetables, salads or stir-frying)

Bitter candy is also known as caramel.

Water fat (pork fat) or onion fat

Pure Ca cuong

Coconut water

Fermented organic spices

Vinegar (spelling: Vinegar)

Vinegar suddenly, red vinegar


Rice hearing


Alcohol (glutinous wine, rice wine, or wine…)

Fish sauce and fish sauce

Fish sauce and dipping sauce

A cup of fish sauce commonly found in Vietnam

Vietnamese cuisine is characterized by the use of many types of fish sauce and dipping sauces from thin to thick. Fish sauce, dipping sauce can be used as a whole, can be distilled or mixed, mixed with chili, ginger or garlic, pepper, sugar, lemon or vinegar.

Housewife connoisseurs often have special experience to prepare dipping sauces depending on the dish. Even, with the same ingredients as fish sauce, vinegar, sugar, garlic, and chili, used to eat with anything, the ratio of ingredients is also different, such as when using raw vegetables, it is diluted, eaten with bun cha. add sour.

Dipping sauce

Fish sauce: Can be made from many types of fish, but mainly only anchovies, herring, and scad. Fish sauce is classified from high to low, including ear fish sauce (also known as juice), and fish sauce type 1,2 (also known as long fish sauce or horizontal fish sauce). Most of the coastal regions of Vietnam have unique fish sauce products from sea fish, including the famous Phu Quoc fish sauce, Phan Thiet fish sauce, and Cat Hai fish sauce.

Soy sauce: a kind of sauce made from sticky rice, soybeans, corn, or peanuts that is moldy and fermented in jars. Famous for Tuong Ban, Tuong Cu Da, Tuong Nam Dan.

Soy sauce, also known as black soy sauce, is made from legumes such as soybeans. Soy sauce is very popular in Southern Vietnamese cuisine.

Special sauce

The kinds of thick fish sauce can be used to eat pure raw as a dish in a meal; can be mixed with spices such as chili, galangal, garlic, and lemon juice into a sauce; It is also often used to create a special broth for fish sauce hotpot, the broth of some noodle dishes.

Vietnam has hundreds of types of special fish sauces, which are famous for shrimp paste, Ruoc sauce, seasoning sauce, fish sauce, shrimp paste, sour shrimp paste (Central specialties), crab sauce, beef sauce, fish sauce, fish sauce. rotten, fish sauce three khac.

In the southern Vietnamese dialect, many types of dried fish such as choke fish and dried salted mullet are also called fish sauces. A dish with a different processing method but also commonly called fish sauce is braised fish sauce.


Grapefruit, orange, tangerine, kumquat





Beam intestine


Strawberry (strawberry and strawberry)

Melon: melon, melon, melon, watermelon

Pineapple (or fragrant)

Coconut, water coconut



star fruit


Na gai








Roi (or plum – m.Nam)



Sim, wow

Apple (jujube)

Dragon fruit

Green tea





Processing form

Agricultural products such as glutinous rice and rice can be cooked directly (such as rice, or sticky rice), milled (such as broken), or made into a powder and then processed (such as cakes that are coated or cooked in rice). mold).

Agricultural products from wheat and barley are usually only processed from flour (such as bread, dumplings, and baked goods).

Fruit and vegetable products can often be processed directly (such as baked or boiled corn dishes) or processed into flour (to make cakes).

Legumes (beans) that are usually cooked only (such as teas) or prepared directly (such as soy sauces) can be peeled (such as green beans), pureed (such as soy sauce and Chao), and sometimes Also used in starches (such as chickpea flour, and soybeans) but to a lesser extent.

Animal meat or bones are usually processed in two main forms: fresh and dried (dried fish, dried deer).

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